1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) has been demonstrated to inhibit hepatic 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25 OHD) production. Changes in cytosolic calcium have been shown to regulate cellular processes. Using the fluorescent dye Quin 2, we have investigated the effects of 1,25(OH)2D and 24,25(OH)2D on cytosolic calcium levels in hepatocytes. 1,25(OH)2D exposure for 5 min increases cytosolic calcium levels by 24% at a concentration of 100 pg/ml, 39% at a concentration of 1 ng/ml, and 50% at a concentration of 2 ng/ml. The latter increment occurs in both the presence and absence of extracellular calcium, indicating that 1,25(OH)2D is mobilizing intracellular calcium pools. 24,25(OH)2D, 10 ng/ml, does not increase cytosolic calcium levels while the calcium ionophore A23187, 3 microM, increases levels by 52%. Calcium inhibits hepatic 25 OHD synthesis in liver homogenates in a dose-dependent fashion, which can be prevented by chelation of calcium with EGTA. 1,25(OH)2D and A23187 decrease hepatocyte 25 OHD synthesis. The inhibitory effect of A23187 can be prevented by chelation of extracellular calcium. The data demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D increases hepatocyte cytosolic calcium, and that these increments in cytosolic calcium may regulate some of the hepatic actions of the vitamin D metabolite.
D T Baran, M L Milne
Transformation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with Epstein-Barr virus and rapid screening on rat insulinoma cells by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to identify monoclonal autoantibodies that reacted with human pancreatic islets. Six such monoclonal autoantibodies were isolated and cloned. All six also were found to react with human thyroid. It is concluded that lymphocytes able to make autoantibodies that react with both the pancreas and thyroid are common in the human B cell repertoire.
C Garzelli, F E Taub, M C Jenkins, D W Drell, F Ginsberg-Fellner, A L Notkins
Interferons (IFN) elicit antiviral and antineoplastic activities by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface. The binding characteristics of IFN to human lymphocytes were studied using IFN alpha 2 labeled with 125I to high specific activity. The specific binding curves generated were analyzed by the LIGAND program of Munson and Rodbard to determine receptor numbers. The number of receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and tonsillar B-lymphocytes (TBL) from normal individuals were 505 +/- 293 (n = 10) and 393 +/- 147 (n = 3) respectively. When these cells were preincubated in vitro with unlabeled IFN alpha 2, the receptor number decreased to 82 +/- 45 and 61 +/- 16 respectively. Receptor binding activities recovered gradually over a period of 72 h when the cells were incubated in IFN-free medium. This recovery of receptors could be blocked by the addition of actinomycin D to the incubation medium. A similar decrease in receptor expression was observed in vivo in PBL from patients being treated daily with 5 X 10(6) units/m2 per d of IFN alpha 2 by subcutaneous injection, for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or papilloma virus infections. Receptor numbers in PBL in vivo were further reduced concurrent with the progression of IFN therapy. Thus the reduction in IFN receptor expression observed in vitro can be demonstrated in vivo. These studies indicate that monitoring IFN receptor expression in vivo can provide information regarding the availability of IFN receptors at the cell surface for the mediation of IFN actions during the course of IFN therapy.
A S Lau, G E Hannigan, M H Freedman, B R Williams
Studies were undertaken to characterize the pattern of proximal tubular fluid (APRH2O) and bicarbonate reabsorption (APRHCO3) in the remnant kidney of euvolemic Munich-Wistar rats. The remnant kidney rats were placed on a diet containing either low or normal protein. Collections were obtained in the early, mid-, and late proximal convoluted tubule. Single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) increased from 40.2 nl/min in controls to 58.8 nl/min in low protein remnant kidney and 78.1 nl/min in normal protein remnant kidney rats. The filtered load of bicarbonate was 1,272, 1,641, and 2,013 pmol/min, in the three groups, respectively. APRH2O and APRHCO3 increased nearly in parallel. Most of the increase in reabsorption occurred in the early proximal tubule. Tubular hypertrophy could account for at least 20-40% of the increase in reabsorption, but the majority of the increase appeared to be a delivery-dependent response similar to that observed in normal rats after an acute increase in SNGFR.
D A Maddox, J F Horn, F C Famiano, F J Gennari
The effects of changes in peritubular pH, carbon dioxide tension (PCO2), and HCO3- concentration on net HCO3- transport was examined in in vitro perfused cortical collecting tubules (CCTs) from unpretreated New Zealand white rabbits. Lowering peritubular HCO3- concentration and pH by reciprocal replacement of HCO3- with Cl-, significantly stimulated net HCO3- absorption. Lowering peritubular HCO3- concentration and pH, by substitution of HCO3- with gluconate, while keeping Cl- concentration constant, also stimulated net HCO3- absorption. Raising peritubular HCO3- concentration and pH, by reciprocal replacement of Cl- with HCO3-, inhibited net HCO3- absorption (or stimulated net HCO3- secretion). When the tubule was cooled, raising peritubular HCO3- concentration had no effect on net HCO3- transport, suggesting these results are not due to the passive flux of HCO3- down its concentration gradient. The effect of changes in ambient PCO2 on net HCO3- transport were also studied. Increasing the ambient PCO2 from 40 mmHg to either 80 or 120 mmHg, allowing pH to fall, had no effect on net HCO3- transport. Similarly, lowering ambient PCO2 to 14 mmHg had no effect on net HCO3- transport. Simultaneously increasing peritubular HCO3- concentration and PCO2, without accompanying changes in peritubular pH, i.e., isohydric changes, stimulated net HCO3- secretion to the same degree as nonisohydric increases in peritubular HCO3- concentration. Likewise, isohydric lowering of peritubular HCO3- concentration and PCO2 stimulated net HCO3- absorption. We conclude that: acute changes in peritubular HCO3- concentration regulate acidification in the CCT and these effects are mediated by a transcellular process; acute changes in ambient PCO2 within the physiologic range have no effect on HCO3- transport in the in vitro perfused CCT; and acute in vitro regulation of CCT acidification is independent of peritubular pH.
M D Breyer, J P Kokko, H R Jacobson
We report the beneficial effects of calcium infusions in a child with hereditary resistance to 1,25(OH)2D and alopecia. This patient after transient responsiveness to vitamin D derivatives became unresponsive to all therapy despite serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations maintained at levels approximately 100-fold normal. A 7-mo trial with calcium infusions led to correction of biochemical abnormalities and healing of rickets. Bone biopsies (n = 3) showed a normal mineralization and the disappearance of the osteomalacia. Cultures of bone-derived cells demonstrated a lack of activation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase and osteocalcin synthesis by 1,25(OH)2D3 (10(-9) and 10(-6) M). These results demonstrate that even in the absence of a normal 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor-effector system in bone cells, normal mineralization can be achieved in humans if adequate serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations are maintained; and calcium infusions may be an efficient alternative for the management of patients with this condition who are unresponsive to large doses of vitamin D derivatives.
S Balsan, M Garabédian, M Larchet, A M Gorski, G Cournot, C Tau, A Bourdeau, C Silve, C Ricour
Young female mice fed a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet rapidly develop acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis. We have observed that pancreatic acini prepared from these mice are unable to secrete amylase in response to addition of the cholinergic agonist carbachol, although they retain the ability to secrete amylase in response to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. The CDE diet does not alter the binding characteristics (Kd or the maximal number of binding sites) for muscarinic cholinergic receptors as tested using the antagonist [3H]N-methylscopolamine nor the competition for this binding by carbachol. Addition of carbachol to acini prepared from mice fed the CDE diet does not result in as marked an increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ levels as that noted in control samples (evaluated using quin2 fluorescence). These observations indicate that the CDE diet interferes with stimulus-secretion coupling in mouse pancreatic acini at a step subsequent to hormone-receptor binding and prior to Ca2+ release. This conclusion is confirmed by our finding that the hormone-stimulated generation of [3H]inositol phosphates (inositol trisphosphate, inositol bisphosphate, and inositol monophosphate) from acini labeled with [3H]myoinositol is markedly reduced in acini prepared from mice fed the CDE diet. This reduction is not due to a decrease in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. This communication represents the first report of a system in which a blockade of inositol phosphate generation can be related to a physiologic defect and pathologic lesion.
R E Powers, A K Saluja, M J Houlihan, M L Steer
Human monocytic tumor cells of the U937 cell line contain substantial quantities of two neutrophil neutral proteinases, elastase and cathepsin G, raising the question of whether their presence reflects an expression of transformation or whether normal monocytes undergo a developmental stage in which they produce certain neutrophil proteinases. To address this issue, we examined U937 cells for production of collagenase, since human alveolar macrophages release fibroblast-like collagenase, an enzyme that is distinct from neutrophil collagenase. Using an immunoassay that utilized antibody to skin fibroblast collagenase, we found that U937 cells secreted barely detectable quantities of enzyme, 10-12 ng/10(6) cells per 24 h, under basal conditions. Upon incubation with 10 nM 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), however, collagenase release increased 200-fold, comparable to the amount secreted by phorbol-stimulated human fibroblasts. Metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation confirmed the enhanced synthesis of U937 cell collagenase upon TPA exposure. This enzyme activity further resembled fibroblast collagenase and differed from neutrophil collagenase by exhibiting preferential cleavage of monomeric type III collagen relative to type I. As previously observed with human alveolar macrophages, U937 cells also released a protein identical to the collagenase inhibitor produced by human skin fibroblasts, a molecule not associated with neutrophils. Release of this inhibitor increased 10-fold with TPA exposure. In contrast to collagenase and collagense inhibitor, TPA-treated U937 cells contained only 10-15% as much elastase and cathepsin G activities as control cells. Thus, TPA-induced differentiation modified the presence of these enzymes in the direction of their content in normal monocytes. Since the neutral proteinase profile of undifferentiated U937 cells resembles that of neutrophils and changes markedly after cellular differentiation to one that is characteristic of monocytes, these data suggest that neutrophilic proteinases may be produced by normal monocytes during the early stages of their differentiation.
H G Welgus, N L Connolly, R M Senior
The renal medullary collecting duct (MCD) secretes protons into its lumen and HCO3 into its basolateral space. Basolateral HCO3 transport is thought to occur via Cl/HCO3 exchange. To further characterize this Cl/HCO3 exchange process, intracellular pH (pHi) regulation was monitored in freshly prepared rabbit outer MCD cells. Cells were separated by protease digestion and purified by Ficoll gradient centrifugation. pHi was estimated fluorometrically using the entrapped intracytoplasmic pH indicator, 6-carboxyfluorescein. Cells were preincubated in bicarbonate-containing solutions and then abruptly diluted into bicarbonate-free media. The MCD cell pHi response to abrupt removal of CO2/HCO3 included an initial alkalinization due to rapid CO2 efflux, followed by an acidification due to HCO3 efflux and a gradual recovery to the resting pHi of 7.24 +/- 0.06 partly due to the action of a plasma membrane H+-ATPase. The initial alkalinization required a CO2/HCO3 gradient and did not occur in the presence of acetazolamide. The acidification phase required intracellular HCO3 and extracellular Cl, which was consistent with a Cl/HCO3 exchange. MCD HCO3 efflux exhibited saturable kinetics for extracellular Cl, with a Michaelis constant (Km) of 29.9 +/- 7.7 mM. HCO3 efflux also exhibited preference for halides over NO3, SCN, and gluconate, and striking sensitivity to disulfonic stilbene and acetazolamide inhibition, with an apparent K1 of 5 X 10(-7) M for DIDS. The final pHi recovery required intracellular ATP, which indicated that Cl/HCO3 and H+-ATPase activities are present in the same cells in these suspensions. The results provide direct evidence for MCD Cl/HCO3 exchange and describe some of the properties of this transport process.
M L Zeidel, P Silva, J L Seifter
In calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease, metabolic abnormalities favoring extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) accumulation have been suspected. Elevations of intracellular PPi in cultured skin fibroblasts from a single French kindred with familial CPPD deposition (19) and elevated nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase activity (NTPPPH), which generates PPi in extracts of CPPD crystal-containing cartilages (14) favor this suspicion. To determine whether NTPPPH activity or PPi content of cells might be a disease marker expressed in extraarticular cells, human skin-derived fibroblasts were obtained from control donors and patients affected with the sporadic and familial varieties of CPPD (CPPD-S and CPPD-F) deposition. Intracellular PPi was elevated in both CPPD-S (P less than 0.05) and CPPD-F (P less than 0.01) fibroblasts compared with control fibroblasts. Ecto-NTPPPH activity was elevated in CPPD-S (P less than 0.01) but not CPPD-F. Intracellular PPi correlated with ecto-NTPPPH (P less than 0.01). Elevated PPi levels in skin fibroblasts may serve as a biochemical marker for patients with familial or sporadic CPPD crystal deposition disease; ecto-NTPPPH activity further separates the sporadic and familial disease types. Expression of these biochemical abnormalities in nonarticular cells implies a generalized metabolic abnormality.
L M Ryan, R L Wortmann, B Karas, M P Lynch, D J McCarty